Thursday, May 21, 2020
The Presidential Debates Between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon In the Presidential Election of 1960 John Fitzgerald Kennedy and Richard Milhouse Nixon were in a series of debates that were different from past debates. The three biggest national television networks arranged for the debate to be televised on all three stations. The Democratic candidate, Senator Kennedy from Massachusetts, and Vice President Nixon both agreed on the televised debates. Each debate was given a subject matter that the candidates agreed to correspond their answers with the subject. The first debate was for the issues concerning domestic questions, the second was centered around the area of foreign policy, and the third and fourth debatesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I believe in effective governmental action. And I think thats the only way the United States is going to maintain its freedom. Its the only way that were going to move ahead. I think we can do a better job. I think were going to have to do a better job if we are going to meet the responsibilities which time and events have placed on us. We cannot turn the job over to anyone else. If the United States fails then the whole cause of freedom fails. (The First Kennedy Nixon Debate, p.2) After Kennedy was finished Smith announced for Vice President Nixon to give his opening statement. Nixon agreed with Kennedy about the U.S. having to move. Nixon compared his thoughts on Communism to a deadly competition, and that the U.S. was ahead and needed to stay that way. He disagreed with Kennedy because Kennedy said that the U.S. had been standing still, and Nixon pointed out that we had been moving. He stated that our gross national product was the highest in the world, that more schools had been built, we had developed more hydroelectric power, and the wages of people had gone up. Nixon said the programs he supported would give all Americans an equal chance for education, better medical care for elders, and more housing. He quickly shot down Kennedys programs and said that with Kennedy the U.S. would quit moving and go stagnate. One of Nixons major points was the spending of each of the political platforms. He showedShow MoreRelatedPresidential Debate Over Presidential Debates947 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthrottle, Kennedy and NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s presidential debates of 1960 are still very much a part of American democracy. Televised presidential debates have become a backbone in an American election. Although these debates are now considered a norm in American politics, this has not always the case. Even after the first time a presidential debate was held between presidential candidates from across the aisle, it took another 16 years for another debate to occur. It is highly doubtful that either Nixon or KennedyRead MoreKennedy-Nixon Debate Analysis779 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGanivet SPC 3540 Ã¢â¬â Persuasion October 22, 2013 Kennedy-Nixon Debate Analysis There may be more truth to the old saying, Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s not what you say but how you say it.Ã¢â¬ On average, 93 percent of meaning found in communication comes from nonverbal messages (Mehrabian 1967). Nonverbal communication is the wordless transmission of information through body language, gestures, tone, space and appearance. The first televised presidential debate is a pivotal example of how pervasive nonverbal communicationRead MoreThe Presidential Election of 1960 Essay1986 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Presidential Election of 1960 The presidential election that took place in 1960 was an interesting one. Newcomer, John F. Kennedy verses the Vice President, Richard M. Nixon. It was experimental with its trail of televised debates. It also marked the second in which a catholic had run for president and more importantly the first in which a catholic attained victory. John F. Kennedy, of Irish decent, was born in Brookline, Massachusetts on May 29,1917. He entered the Navy, after graduationRead More1960 Presidential Election: Richard Nixon vs. John F Kennedy2667 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesÃ¯ » ¿President Election 1960: Richard Nixon v. John F. Kennedy The 1960 Presidential Election was historic in its new approaches to media and televisions ability to capture the future leader of America live for the first time. Previous presidents had been listened to via radio, and seen in retrospect in movie theaters, particularly during World War II, but 1960 was the first time the majority of Americans were able to watch their future President debate his opponent and feel the immediate reactionsRead MoreJohn F. Kennedy: A Legacy Never Forgotten1377 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names(Brainy Quotes). John F Kennedy said this during one of his speeches, and ironically no one will ever forget the name of the person who murdered him, Lee Harvey Oswald, an enemy of the American Public. When Kennedy ran for office, he had to seem like the more experienced candidate and appeal to all of the people. During his speeches, Kennedy engaged his audiences and they hung on his every word. However, the tragic event of his assassinationRead MoreBiography Of John F. Kennedy Essay1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesclose race between both candidates Republican Richard Nixon and Democrat John F. Kennedy. Nixon and Kennedy were polar- opposites when it came to politics and even their personalities were distinct. John F. Kennedy was young and charismatic whereas Nixon was more traditional with his ways of running his campaign. John F. Kennedy prevailed with his ability to manipulate the press and use his money in ways other candidates hav e never been able to do before. Born to Joe and Rose Kennedy, John was oneRead MoreHuman Communication: Non Verbal Communication1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPresident Bill Clinton. A perfect example of this skill would be during the nineteen ninety-two presidential debate between Bill Clinton and George Bush. During the second debate, an audience member asked a question on the recession. George BushÃ¢â¬â¢s response was more defensive and confusing than a definitive answer (Masket). This opened the door for Clinton to win the crowd over with a well versed answer. In the debate, you will notice ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s hands always line up directly with his words when he is tryingRead MoreJohn F. Kennedy s Accomplishments Essay1532 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe campaign for President in 1960s was one of the closest races between two candidates. In the end, John F. Kennedy, the Democratic nominee, had only been elected by a one-tenth of a percent margin against his Republican party opponent, Richard M. Nixon. John F. Kennedy ha d made specific decisions as the Democratic candidate that helped him leap to victory. Specifically, JFKÃ¢â¬â¢s performance during the first televised debate, decision to focus on key large states, Houston tape, and other decisionsRead MoreThe War Of A National Highway System1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe term New Frontier was used by liberal, Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech. Kennedy entered office with the goal to get rid of Americas poverty, and to raise AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes to the stars through the space program. During the New Frontier, unemployment benefits were expanded, aid was provided to cities to improve housing and transportation, funds were allocated to continue the construction of a national highway system started under Eisenhower, a water pollutionRead MoreU.s. Government s Presidential Selection Process851 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThere has always been a history behind everything that the U.S. government has done. So why woul d the presidential selection process be any different. When looking at this procedure, unlike the Electoral College, the nominating of the presidential candidates are not spelled out in the constitution. Seeing as the constitution was written in the late 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s there were no political parties to speak of. At the beginning of 1796 members of the U.S. Congress would meet informally to agree on their partyÃ¢â¬â¢s
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men Edward Chance Tolman made many significant findings to the studies of learning, memory and motivation. Today Tolman would be considered a Cognitive Behaviorist, he developed his own brand of behaviorism which emphasized the purposeful nature behind an organisms actions, taking into account its goals and motivations. Ã¢â¬Å"He is best remembered for being a pioneer in cognitive psychology during a time when behaviorists dominated the field. Tolman made several significant contributions to the field of psychology. At Berkeley University he created a cognitive theory of learning, which became his trademark to the field. He thought of learning as developing from bits of knowledge and cognition about theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Methodology Tolman ran several experiments, wherein he started his rats at a specific point labeled Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ in a maze so that they had to turn right at a point labeled Ã¢â¬Å"BÃ¢â¬ to get food or reinforcement. There were three groups of rats in Tolmans experiment. Each group was placed in the same maze, but were given rewards at different stages and days throughout the experiment. Tolman recorded the number of errors that the rats made each day, and how long the task took them. The rats in the Control Group always received a food reward when they reached the correct end of the maze. The rats in Experimental Group 1 never received a food reward, and it seemed like they were just wandering around. The rats in Experimental Group 2 seemed to wander around just like the rats in Experimental Group 1 and found no food for the first ten days. However, on the eleventh day, when Tolman placed food in the maze it appeared as though they had learned to go to the end of the maze even without any prior reinforcement. On the twelfth day, the rats from Experimental Group 2 were doing as well as the rats from the Control Group, which had been rewarded with food from the very beginning of the test. This demons trates that the rats were still learning and making cognitive maps of the maze even though there was no reward given. This wasShow MoreRelatedEssay on Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men1374 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCognitive Maps in Rats and Men Edward Chance Tolman made many significant findings to the studies of learning , memory and motivation. By todays standards he would be considered a behaviorist. Ã¢â¬Å"He is best remembered for being a pioneer in cognitive psychology during a time when behaviorists dominated the field. Tolman made several significant contributions to the field of psychology. At Berkeley University he created a cognitive theory of learning, which became his trademark to the fieldRead MorePerspectives Paper1467 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBehaviorists and cognitive psychologists have debated for many years. It is from these two schools of thought that dueling informational ideas have been born. Originally, behaviorism was the leading school of thought being led by John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner. Later new ideas regarding the mind became more prominent. Edward C. Tolman was one of the more prominent figures of this field. Behaviorists looked for more evidence of behavior and rejected any ideas about the mind. An idea that was highlyRead MoreThe Fundamental Principle Of Concept Of Parsimony1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescould strengthen ones learning. His approach to behaviourism was very parsimonious, using only a strict few simples to explain a variety of phenomena, e.g. Ã¢â¬ËThe Little AlbertÃ¢â¬â¢ experimentÃ¢â¬â¢. The idea round the experiment was that by pairing a white rat (CS) with a loud bang (UCS) one could induce fear (UCR) which is known as classical conditioning. With these observable events WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s was able to influence many theorists and their contributions to behaviourism. Firstly I refer to SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s workRead MoreCognitive Learning Theory1475 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCognitive Learning Theory Angela Baker PSY 331 Mr. Domingo Mamaril June 21, 2010 Cognitive Learning Theory Cognitive theorists try to explain human behavior by understanding how we process and store new information. The cognitive theories of learning originated from the gestalt theory. The three major contributors to the cognitive learning theories were Jean Piaget, Edward Tolman, and Albert Bandura. In this paper, I will evaluate the work of all three theorists, demonstrate an understandingRead MorePsychology : Personality Psychology Rough Draft1801 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageswith the research laboratory rats to stay himself occupied. Watson viewed Albert s activity with the rat as an input. Albert was given the rat (stimuli) that induced the play behavior. within the experiment, Albert was given the rat to play with, solely currently the sound of a hammer hit a ingot was introduced once the play behavior began. Once seven shows of the rat and also the loud sound that afraid Albert, a brand new response was noticed, crying, whenever the rat was introduced back to AlbertRead MoreBehaviorism a nd Classical Conditioning Essay3350 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pages Watson, there have been many variations of the behaviorist view that have surfaced over the years. In this paper I will attempt to give a detailed description of the history of behaviorism including information about some of the most influential men associated with this movement. I will also explain the methodologies associated with behaviorism such as classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and other controversial theories and views. Behaviorism The atmosphere surrounding the psychologicalRead MoreThe Psychology Of Human Behavior2898 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesPsychology, the study of human behavior, encompasses numerous realms and topics. From human development to drug abuse, psychologists strive to understand behavior and apply their findings. One such area that begets curiosity and research is the cognitive process that is memory. Memory is one of the most precious and crucial components of a person. Experiences shape a personality and create a person. Memories in the form of a witnessÃ¢â¬â¢s testimony have the power to jail someone for life. However, areRead MoreOverview of Bulimia Essay2050 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesWallace, 2011). During this time, Tolman advanced the learning theory by demonstrating that the content of learning may be more cognitive than behavioral. After teaching rats to run through mazes, he discovered that the rats could also swim or ride a trolley car through the maze. He concluded that the rats develo ped a cognitive map of the maze itself. Tolman argued that rats form expectancies about the maze based on their experience with it (1932). His theory is now referred to as the Expectancy TheoryRead MoreFour Main Perspectives in Psychology2425 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThere are four main perspectives in psychology. These are known as; behaviourism, humanism, psychodynamic and cognitive. Each of them explain some aspects of human behaviour well, but one perspective cannot explain all human behaviour. Behaviourism is primarily concerned with observable behaviour; the behaviour which can be watched and seen by others. It does not focus on any internal events, such as thinking, memory or the mind. It suggests that all behaviours are the result of some sort of stimulusRead More The Rights Of Animals Essay example1754 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPsychology, Philosophy, Economics and Foreign Affairs Web Sites Animal rights is a catchphrase akin to human rights. 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string(105) " with acute IDON we managed to obtain the MRI informations within 30 yearss of the oncoming of symptoms\." ABSTRACT. Optic neuritis ( ON ) is defined as an redness of the ocular nervus and provides a utile theoretical account for analyzing the effects of inflammatory demyelination of white affair. The purpose of this survey was to measure the diffusion changes both of the ocular nervus and ocular radiation in patients with acute and chronic ON utilizing diffusion tensor MR imagination ( DT-MRI ) . We will write a custom essay sample on Optic Radiation In Optic Neuritis Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Thirty-three patients with idiopathic demyelinating ocular neuritis ( IDON ) and 33 gender- and age-matched healthy controls were examined with DT-MRI, T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Compared with controls, both first episode and recurrent patients with IDON in the ague phase showed significantly increased radial diffusivity ( IÃ »aS? ) and decreased average fractional anisotropy ( FA ) in the affected nervousnesss. Reduced FA, increased IÃ »aS? , average diffusivity ( MD ) and axial diffusivity ( IÃ »a ) were determined in patients with subacute IDON. We found no important difference in the directional diffusivity of ocular radiation in patients whose disease had lasted less than one twelvemonth compared with healthy controls. However, important alterations of FA and IÃ »aS? of the ocular radiation were detected in patients with disease continuance more than one twelvemonth. These consequences show the great potency and capacity of DT-MRI steps as really utile biomarkers and indexs f or the rating of myelin hurt in the ocular tract. Ocular nervus sheath dilation can be detected utilizing conventional T2-weighted MRI as has been reported by Hickman et Al. [ 2-3 ] . These two surveies assessed the effects of a individual inflammatory procedure and its attach toing demyelination in a cohort of patients during their first episode of acute one-sided ON, and reported a consistent form of alterations associated with demyelination lesions caused by redness in the ocular nervus. It is of great clinical importance to find prodromic alterations and the implicit in pathological mechanisms in patients with ON. However, since the hyperintensity can be a consequence of either redness, gliosis or axonal devolution, T2-weighted images fail to place the cause underlying the pathology. Diffusion tensor MR imagination ( DT-MRI ) , a widely recognized imagination technique that identifies the dominant way of H2O diffusion and the magnitude of anisotropy in vivo [ 4 ] has late gained more prominence for the probe of white affair cons truction, unity and connectivity. The demyelination harm in the ocular nervus and ocular radiation can be located with the aid of DT-MRI parametric quantities, such as average diffusivity ( MD ) and fractional anisotropy ( FA ) , axial diffusivity IÃ »a and radial diffusivity IÃ »aS? [ 5-6 ] . Postmortem scrutiny of MS patients suggests that the pathological mechanisms of ON may include a combination of redness, demyelination, astrocytosis and axonal devastation [ 7 ] . Surveies in mouse ocular nervus after retinal ischaemia have revealed elusive alterations of axons and medulla in the white affair and found IÃ »a and IÃ »aS? values to be associated with axonal pathological alterations [ 8-9 ] . These consequences suggest DTI to be superior compared to other conventional imaging techniques for the intent of researching the pathological mechanisms of ON. Particular challenges associated with DT-MRI of the ocular nervus are the little diameter and the nomadic constructions surrounded by CSF and orbital fat [ 10-11 ] . In visible radiation of this, and despite utilizing different sequences and protocols, it is rather singular that several different groups have reported similar values in healthy controls ( MD 1.0-1.3A-10-3 mm2/s and FA 0.4-0.6 ) and altered diffusion paramet ric quantities in chronic ON patients [ 12-13 ] . The different developmental phases of ON seem to be associated with different pathological mechanisms. The acute phase is characterized by redness and perchance demyelination of the ocular nervus. The chronic phase, on the other manus, typically shows axonal harm, perchance even axonal decease taking to wasting of the ocular nervus [ 14-16 ] . Increased MD and decreased FA were observed in a heterogenous cohort of patients with chronic ON [ 17 ] ; increased evident diffusion coefficient ( ADC ) values were found particularly in chronic patients [ 18-19 ] . A survey closely related to our work showed axial diffusivity IÃ »a in the acute phase to supply of import predictive information and the radial diffusivity IÃ »aS? in the subacute phase to stand for the best step correlated with the visus [ 20 ] . A recent survey proved tractography to be a method sensitive plenty to observe pathological abnormalcies in the ocular radiations after ON [ 21 ] . Understanding the connexion between altered diffusion parametric quantities of the ocular nervus, ocular radiation and ocular public presentation will supply insight into the implicit in pathological mechanisms and may be valuable for being able to foretell the ocular development after ON. The old surveies mentioned above, have shown different pathological mechanisms during the different phases of ON and we were interested to corroborate these findings by DT-MRI, a novel and sensitive methodological attack. We hypothesized that the pathological alterations happening during the unwellness might impact the diffusion indices otherwise and that we therefore might happen differing diffusion values in the ague and subacute phases of ON based on the concluding clinical diagnosing. Materials and methods Subjects Thirty-three patients who fulfilled the clinical standards set by the Optic Neuritis Study Group [ 22, 23 ] were recruited from May 2008 to December 2008 at the Beijing Tongren Hospital. The patient group consisted of 12 males and 21 females from 10 to 58 old ages ( average 31.1AÃ ±12.8 old ages ) . The demographic informations assessed during the MRI survey is included in Table 1. Thirty-three gender- and age-matched healthy controls ( 12 male and 21 female, average ages 29.21AÃ ±12.09 old ages ( run 10-60 old ages ) ) with normal neurological scrutiny and no history of neurological upsets served as control topics. Table 1. Demographic and clinical features of patients with IDON Characteristic No of patients Gender Male 12 Female 21 Age ( old ages ) Median 31.1 Range 10-58 Phase of disease ( casesi?Ã¢â¬ ° Acute 33 First 26 Backsliding 7 Subacute 18 First 6 Backsliding 12 In this paper we will further mention to the single eyes of the topics as instances, wholly the survey included 51 instances in the patient group. In 33 instances with acute IDON we managed to obtain the MRI informations within 30 yearss of the oncoming of symptoms. You read "Optic Radiation In Optic Neuritis Health And Social Care Essay" in category "Essay examples" Twenty-six of these instances were first manifestations of the acute signifier of ON, the other 7 were perennial instances. We defined the ON to be acute if a patient experience an episode of ON within 30 yearss from the oncoming of ocular symptoms [ 20, 22, 24 ] . In 18 instances with subacute IDON, the MRI-data was acquired more than 30 yearss after the eruption of the unwellness. Six instances were first episodes and 12 the consequence of a recurrent episodes. At the same clip, we selected 9 topics whose disease had lasted longer than 1 twelvemonth and 14 topics less than 1 twelvemonth to look into the secondary effec ts to OR. The survey was approved by the moralss commission of the Beijing Tongren Hospital and a written informed consent was obtained from each topic harmonizing to the Declaration of Helsinki. Data acquisition All measurings were performed on a 1.5-T Signa MRI system ( General Electric, Milwaukee, WI, USA ) . Head gesture was minimized by keeping foam tablets provided by the maker. Subjects were asked to shut their eyes in order to minimise any effects of deliberate oculus motion during the acquisition clip. Each topic was scanned utilizing a high declaration T2-weighted ( fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences ) FLAIR sequence ( TR=9000ms, TE=120ms, TI=2125ms, field of position ( FOV ) =24A-21cm2, matrix size 256A-222, 32 pieces, 4.0 millimeter piece thickness with 0.8-mm interslice spread ) in order to observe any encephalon abnormalcies. At the clip of the ocular neuritis, the patients had no important image impairment or other marks of neurologic lesions in the ocular radiation. The images of the ocular nervousnesss were obtained with an 8-channel caput spiral utilizing coronal-oblique spin-echo EPI sequence with parallel acquisition. The coronal-oblique pieces were set extraneous to the nervousnesss ( See Fig.1 ) . The covering scope was from the ocular papilla to the orbital vertex of the ocular nervus. We used the undermentioned acquisition parametric quantities for the ocular nervus: one b0 and 6 non-collinear gradient waies with b=600s/mm2, FOV= 22A-22 cm2, matrix size 128A-128, NEX= 16, 8 immediate 5.0 millimeter pieces. By concentrating entirely on the ocular nervus, the signal-noise-ratio ( SNR ) of images was set at 35-40. The diffusion acquisition parametric quantities of the ocular radiation were the undermentioned: one b0 and 15 non-collinear waies with b=1000 s/mm2, TR=6000ms, TI=71ms, FOV = 24A-24cm2, matrix size 128A-128, NEX=6, 22 immediate 4.0 millimeter pieces. In add-on a whole-brain 3D T1 SPGR sequence ( TR=10ms, TE=4.4ms, TI=600ms, FOV=2 6A-26cm2, matrix size=256A-256, NEX=1, 152 immediate 1.0-mm pieces ) was used as a beginning image for the subsequent co-registration of the ocular radiation. Figure 1. Position of the pieces viewed on an axial localizer position of the ocular nervus. There are 8 pieces from the anterior portion ( next to the ocular papilla ) to the posterior portion ( near the orbital vertex ) of the ocular nervus. Datas processing The first measure was to formalize the quality of the natural images. The images with deficient quality were rescanned until they met the SNR standards set for the analysis. Then eddy current deformations and gesture artefacts in the DT-MRI informations were corrected by using affine alliance, utilizing FMRIBs diffusion tool chest ( FSL, Oxford, UK. ) [ 25-26 ] . In order to be able to compare diffusion belongingss in patients and controls, a method to place matching anatomical parts was required. The first necessary measure was to happen a consistent spacial standardization for the two separate groups. Due to the different protocols for ocular nervus and ocular radiation we present two different methods for the processing of the several MRI-data, and depict these methods in the undermentioned subdivisions. Ocular nervus fibre Image enrollment The maps of MD, FA and eigenvector were calculated on a voxel-by-voxel footing, followed by a diagonalization of the reconstructed tensor matrix in order to obtain characteristic root of a square matrixs ( IÃ »1, IÃ »2, IÃ »3 ) and eigenvectors utilizing DTIStudio ( MRI Studio Software, Johns Hopkins University, USA ) . To be able to rectify for planetary morphological differences a expansive mean b0 informations set was created from all topics. This mean image was so used as a mention relation to which each topic was positioned ( single b0 to template b0 ) with a 12-parameter affine theoretical account. The same transmutation parametric quantities were so used to co-register the MD and FA images to the templet b0. Regions of involvement ( ROI ) choice The intraorbital 4th bed of the nervus ( about 2.0cm after the ball ) was used for the undermentioned analysis ( See Fig.2 ) . The ROIs were defined manually on the b0-template ( mean non-diffusion-weighted ) dwelling of two square 2A-2 voxels ( Fig.2A ) . To avoid prejudice caused by the partial volume consequence, the ROIs were placed in the centre of the nervus. After averaging the images across the population, the b0-images contained significantly less noise than in single images. The associated color-coded maps were used for optimum ROI arrangement ( Fig.2B ) and to vouch objectiveness the process was performed by an experient radiotherapist blinded to the individuality of the topic. The ROIs of single instances were mapped from the templet b0 utilizing an reverse transmutation. These ROIs were so overlaid to the MD, FA and eigenvalue maps, where average values from the 4 voxels were obtained ( Fig.2C-D ) . Figure 2. ROI choice in the 3rd piece of the ON. ( A ) Non-diffusion-weighted b0 image, ( B ) Color-map, ( C ) FA map, and ( D ) MD map. The pointer is indicating to the ocular nervus. The ROIs were placed on the b0-averaged images and so transferred onto the FA and MD maps. Ocular radiation fibre All piece of lands in the informations were reconstructed utilizing a fiber assignment uninterrupted tracking algorithm [ 6 ] . In order to minimise the anatomical encephalon variableness between topics, a group-based Atlas model was introduced building a population specific templet. We applied the joint analysis model for group-based co-registration uniting structural and diffusion tensor MRI similar to Tao et Al. [ 27 ] , but utilized the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration utilizing Exponentiated Lie algebra ( DARTEL ) enrollment method [ 28 ] . As a high-dimensional diffeomorphic enrollment method, this novel technique utilizes the big distortion model parameterized by speed vector Fieldss to continue topology. The amount of square differences between the beginning and mark images are minimized at the same time to the enrollment, and the additive elastic energy of the distortions are used to falsify the mark image, which can better the realignment public presentation of little interior constructions [ 29-30 ] . Combined DTI and structural analysis grapevine Group templet maps were created utilizing statistical parametric function ( SPM8, Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, London, UK ) to find the normal inter-subject variableness of white affair tracts. We built a structural Atlas from all topics T1 images with the DARTEL tool chest. After this measure the b0 -volume of each DT-MRI information set was registered to the associated T1 image utilizing a 12-parameter affine transmutation. The corrected diffusion images of each topic were algebraically transformed to compose a structural Atlas infinite, enabling anatomical designation and comparing of the ocular radiation in the aforesaid atlas infinite. An overview of the process observing differences between the diffusion belongingss of fibre piece of lands is shown in Fig.3. Figure 3. Ocular radiation analysis grapevine jointly utilizing structural and diffusion images. Regions of involvement ( ROI ) choice After the atlas building process, we used a multiple ROI attack to work the fibre piece of land. The get downing ROI was manually placed in the sidelong geniculate organic structure on a reconstructed axial image with an AND operation. It was designed to include the ocular radiation of each side and the full environing white affair. For each piece of land, a 2nd spherical ROI with 4mm radius was placed in the occipital lobe near the midplane with an AND operation. Reconstructed fibres perforating both ROIs were considered representative of the ocular radiation ( See Fig.4 ) . These two ROIs were so overlaid on the FA maps and transferred to other directional diffusivity maps. Diffusivity in all spacial waies was obtained from every voxel along the path of the ocular radiation. Figure 4. DTI fiber tracking and extraction of ocular radiation. DTI fibre paths ( green ) were launched from a get downing part of involvement ( white box ) in a plane buttocks to the sidelong geniculate karyon. Fiber paths were filtered with a 2nd part of involvement ( two balls ) in a plane adjacent to the ocular cerebral mantle. Statistical analysis All statistical analyses were performed utilizing SPSS v13.0 ( SPSS Inc. , USA ) . In a first measure, ipsilateral differences between patients and controls were explored utilizing a mated t-test. To avoid the prejudice originating from the categorization of the bilateral involved nervousnesss of one patient being the same ON phase into the same group, we applied Generalized Estimating Equation ( GEE ) . This method, introduced by Zeger et Al. [ 31 ] , extends generalised additive theoretical accounts to suit correlated informations from topics with similar features. Consequences Directional diffusivity of ocular nervus Acute accent ON The survey consisted of 33 acute-stage instances: 26 first manifestations and 7 recurrent instances. Significant differences within the ROIs comparing the two subgroups of patients and their controls were detected in all DT-MRI measurings ( paired t trial, see Table 2, besides see Fig.5 ) . The average FA was significantly reduced ; the mean MD and IÃ »aS? were increased in the acute-stage IDON instances compared to healthy controls. In patients with first manifestation, significantly decreased IÃ »a values were detected ( t = 2.10, P = 0.046 ) . And increased IÃ »a were found in recurrent patients compared to controls ( t = 0.84, P = 0.434 ) with no important difference. Since there were merely 7 instances with a perennial disease history, we decided to measure merely the first manifestation group and matched healthy group in Table 3 utilizing GEE. This survey proved the average FA from ON patients to be significantly lower compared to healthy controls ( omega = 61.053, P lt ; 0 .001 ) . Compared to healthy controls, we found drastically elevated IÃ »aS? ( z = 19.181, P lt ; 0.001 ) in the patients and somewhat decreased IÃ »a , but the latter did non make statistical significance ( z = 3.414, P = 0.065 ) . ( A ) ( B ) ( C ) ( D ) Figure 5. Quantitative analysis of DT-MRI indices in ON. Relative alterations of the ( A ) FA, ( B ) MD, ( C ) IÃ »a , ( D ) IÃ »aS? in each ocular nervus from controls and the instances of first oncoming during acute phase ( expressed as mean AÃ ± standard divergence ) . Paired t trial demonstrated that MD and IÃ »aS? were significantly elevated and FA was notably reduced in affected nervousnesss. Table 2. Diffusion parametric quantities from the instances during acute stage of IDON ( first and perennial oncoming ) Indexs Acute Controls t-value p-value FA foremost 0.39AÃ ± 0.08 0.59AÃ ± 0.09 8.40 0.000 recurrent 0.33AÃ ± 0.05 0.64AÃ ± 0.11 7.46 0.000 MD foremost 1.50AÃ ± 0.20 1.40AÃ ± 0.30 2.22 0.036 recurrent 1.80AÃ ± 0.28 1.20AÃ ± 0.36 3.54 0.012 IÃ »a foremost 2.18AÃ ± 0.31 2.39AÃ ± 0.45 2.10 0.046 recurrent 2.50AÃ ± 0.31 2.27AÃ ± 0.64 0.84 0.434 IÃ »aS? foremost 1.10AÃ ± 0.20 0.80AÃ ± 0.27 5.40 0.000 recurrent 1.50AÃ ± 0.28 0.70AÃ ± 0.28 5.45 0.002 Thirty-three instances with IDON were of acute phase ( the continuance of the disease from scrutiny to last onset twenty-four hours was less than one month ) , of which 26 instances in 19 topics were foremost affected and seven instances in 7 topics suffered from recurrent episodes. Axial, radial, and average diffusivities ( IÃ »a , IÃ »aS? , MD ) are given in AÃ µm2/ms. Fractional anisotropy is without units. All values of DTI indices are given as the mean AÃ ± criterion divergence. IDON=idiopathic ocular neuritis. Table 3. The GEE consequences of diffusion indices from the instances of first oncoming during acute phase Indexs Parameter appraisal criterion divergence z-value p-value FA -0.201 0.026 61.053 0.000 MD 0.137 0.000 3.253 0.071 IÃ »a -0.208 0.000 3.414 0.065 IÃ »aS? 0.309 0.000 19.181 0.000 Twenty-six instances in 19 topics were foremost involved. The values of axial, radial, and average diffusivities ( IÃ »a , IÃ »aS? , MD ) are given in AÃ µm2/ms. Fractional anisotropy is without units. All values are expressed as the natural logarithm of the ratio between controls and patients with IDON in the acute phase. IDON=idiopathic ocular neuritis. GEE=Generalized estimating equation. Subacute ON The DT-MRI information of 18 remitting instances is illustrated in Table 4. As is shown, both instances with first manifestation of IDON ( paired t trial, n = 6 ) ) and perennial IDON ( paired t trial, n = 12 ) showed a similar tendency with decreased FA values and increased MD, IÃ »a and IÃ »aS? when compared to controls ( see Table 4 ) . However, there was no important difference in IÃ »a ( t = 2.46, P = 0.057 ) between subacute IDON patients with first episode and controls. We suspect that this may be due to the little sample size ( n=6 ) . Table 4. Diffusion indices from instances during the subacute stage of IDON ( first and perennial oncoming ) Indexs Acute Controls t-value p-value FA foremost 0.39AÃ ±0.08 0.56AÃ ±0.03 4.42 0.007 recurrent 0.35AÃ ±0.10 0.56AÃ ±0.05 8.01 0.000 MD foremost 1.80AÃ ±0.28 1.40AÃ ±0.08 3.87 0.012 recurrent 2.10AÃ ±0.44 1.50AÃ ±0.140 4.73 0.001 IÃ »a foremost 2.64AÃ ±0.36 2.34AÃ ±0.10 2.46 0.057 recurrent 2.96AÃ ±0.49 2.52AÃ ±0.29 2.35 0.038 IÃ »aS? foremost 1.40AÃ ±0.27 0.90AÃ ±0.09 4.25 0.008 recurrent 1.70AÃ ±0.45 1.00AÃ ±0.10 5.88 0.000 Eighteen instances with IDON were in the subacute phase ( the continuance of the disease from the scrutiny twenty-four hours to the last oncoming had been more than one month ) in which six instances in 5 topics had been affected for the first clip and twelve in 8 topics had been affected antecedently. Patients were defined as Ã¢â¬Å" recurrent Ã¢â¬ , if they had had more than two oncomings of symptoms at the clip of the MRI appraisal. Axial, radial, and average diffusivities ( IÃ »a , IÃ »aS? , MD ) are given in AÃ µm2/ms. Fractional anisotropy is without units. All values of DTI indices are given as the mean AÃ ± criterion divergence. IDON=idiopathic ocular neuritis. Directional diffusivity of ocular radiation The DT-MRI scrutiny of ocular radiation was performed on 23 patients. Nine patients, whose diseases had lasted from 1 twelvemonth to 13 old ages, and 14 patients, whose diseases had lasted from 8 yearss to 4 months, were included in this analysis. The path of the reconstructed fibres and tract-specific quantification was consistent with the known anatomy of the human ocular tract from old surveies conducted by Ciccarelli et Al. and Xie et Al. [ 21, 32 ] . These findings showed connexions from the posterior portion of the ocular radiation to ocular countries and connexions between the median portion and the karyon of the sidelong geniculate organic structure. Table 5 illustrates the average FA, MD, IÃ »aS? and IÃ »a within the reconstructed ocular radiation of 9 patients whose disease had lasted more than 1 twelvemonth ( mated T trial, n=9 ) . Compared to the control group, the FA values demo a statistically important lessening ( t = 3.45, P = 0.009 ) and the IÃ »aS? value a dramat ic addition ( t = 3.92, P = 0.004 ) ( See Fig.6 ) . Compared to the controls, there is no statistically alteration in the mean FA, MD, IÃ »aS? and IÃ »a within the reconstructed ocular radiation of 14 patients, whose disease had lasted less than 1 twelvemonth ( mated T trial, n=14, see Table 6 ) . ( A ) ( B ) Figure 6. Relative alterations of the FA and IÃ »aS? in each ocular nervus from controls and patients who had suffered more than one twelvemonth from ocular damage ( expressed as mean AÃ ± standard divergence ) . Table 5. Diffusion parametric quantities in IDON patients whose disease had lasted more than 1 twelvemonth in comparing with controls Parameter ON Controls t-value p-value FA 0.46AÃ ± 0.04 0.50AÃ ± 0.03 3.45 0.009 MD 0.89AÃ ± 0.05 0.84AÃ ± 0.02 2.14 0.065 IÃ »a 1.38AÃ ± 0.07 1.37AÃ ± 0.07 0.41 0.691 IÃ »aS? 0.64AÃ ± 0.06 0.58AÃ ± 0.02 3.92 0.004 Nine topics are included. Axial, radial, and average diffusivities ( IÃ »a , IÃ »aS? , MD ) are given in AÃ µm2/ms. Fractional anisotropy is without units. All values of DTI indices are given as the mean AÃ ± criterion divergence. IDON=idiopathic ocular neuritis. Table 6. Diffusion parametric quantities in IDON patients whose disease had lasted less than 1 twelvemonth in comparing with controls Indexs ON Controls t-value p-value FA 0.49AÃ ±0.04 0.48AÃ ±0.03 0.62 0.547 MD 0.88AÃ ±0.04 0.87AÃ ±0.04 1.06 0.308 IÃ »a 1.41AÃ ±0.03 1.38AÃ ±0.06 2.06 0.062 IÃ »aS? 0.62AÃ ±0.05 0.61AÃ ±0.04 0.34 0.738 Fourteen topics are included. Axial, radial, and average diffusivities ( IÃ »a , IÃ »aS? , MD ) were given in AÃ µm2/ms. Fractional anisotropy was without units. All values of DTI indices are given as the mean AÃ ± criterion divergence. IDON=idiopathic ocular neuritis. Discussion The most common cause for IDON is believed to be an autoimmune reaction against the medulla environing the fibres in the ocular nervus which induces an inflammatory response that can ensue nerve harm. In some instances, early symptoms of ON may bespeak an eruption of MS, a disease besides caused by redness and axon harm in encephalon and the spinal cord. Therefore, a alternate biomarker is needed to uncover the implicit in pathological procedures of ON. In the current survey we used the directional diffusivities from DT-MRI to look into the abnormalcies in ocular nervousnesss and ocular radiation after ON. The diameter of the human ocular nervus is about 3-4mm. The nervus is surrounded by several beds of membranes, for illustration nervus sheath and orbital fat. Artifacts caused by eye-movement and the susceptibleness effects caused by nearby fistulas make it hard to get dependable diffusion image informations and to keep an equal SNR. Methods like spin-echo echo planar imagination ( SE-EPI ) [ 33 ] , interior volume imaging ( IVI ) or decreased field of position technique [ 34-36 ] were introduced to better image quality. In this survey, the SE-EPI protocol, a comparatively low maximal b-value with 600 s/mm2, six independent waies and a high figure of acquisitions were used to guarantee a suited a sufficiently high SNR. This method has antecedently been validated by several writers, such as Trip et al. , Kolbe et al. , Xu et Al. and many more [ 12, 17, 34, 36-37 ] . In add-on, we scanned the ocular nervus bilaterally in a coronal plane since the image deformation was greater in a sepa rate one-sided acquisition. Kolbe et Al. [ 12 ] scanned ocular nervousnesss separately in 10 coronal oblique pieces set extraneous to the nervus and analyzed the first six pieces. The group found the diffusivity values to alter drastically along the length of the ocular nervus. The FA values in the 1st and 2nd piece were well lower and the MD values well higher than in other parts. No important differences in FA or MD were found in the 3 last pieces. In the presented survey, we divided the ocular nervus into eight extraneous coronal oblique pieces. The superimposed form of DT-MRI diffusivity was confirmed in a pretest survey: the ocular nervus on pieces 6-8 was identical in most instances, and the diffusion indices were susceptible to vitreous organic structure in the pieces 1-2. In contrast, robust directional diffusivity was observed in the pieces 3-5. FA and MD values showed no important differences between the right and the left ocular nervus in healthy controls as illustrated in Table 7. Randomized discrep ancy block-analysis indicated important differences in FA but non in MD among the pieces ( see Table 8, FA: F = 17.54, P lt ; 0.001 ; MD: F=0.500, p=0.613 ) . In add-on, the FA values in the 4th and 5th pieces were higher than in the 3rd piece ( p lt ; 0.000 ( 3rd vs. 4th ) , p lt ; 0.000 ( 3rd vs. 5th ) ) , but did non differ statistically from each other ( p = 0.757 ( 4th vs. 5th ) ) . We suggest that the consequence of oculus motions is smaller in the posterior portion of the ocular nervus. We assume that two factors may impact the diffusivity values: foremost, the possible mobility of the ocular nervus may be reduced in the mid-posterior portion ; 2nd, a more directional motion of H2O molecules in the well-organized and compact fibres. The fifth bed of the ocular nervus ( about 2.5 centimeters distal from the orb ) could be measured clearly in most topics, but measurings failed in five teenaged and in one 60-year-old patient due to reconstruction jobs. For that ground we had to utilize the 4th bed ( about 2 centimeter after the ball ) in this survey. DT-MRI utilizations H2O diffusion features to retrace white affair construction through diffusion way and amplitude. Altered diffusion parametric quantities were found in patients with chronic ON compared to healthy controls: MD was increased and FA decreased [ 13 ] . Harmonizing to Smith et Al. [ 38 ] , the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the clinical symptoms in the ague ON include redness, hydrops, demyelination and loss of axons in the ocular nervus. A self-generated visus recovery a few hebdomads or even months after the hurt has been reported in some instances. Many factors like a diminishing inflammatory response, remyelination, Restoration of conductivity in demyelinated axons, as suggested by Smith et Al. [ 38 ] and cortical or subcortical malleability, as proposed for illustration by Toosy et Al. and Werring et Al. [ 14-15, 39-40 ] may take to the ocular recovery. Since the demyelination presumptively is a dynamic procedure, we hypothesized that different DTI indic es may alter at different phases of ON. Table 7. Lateral differences of FA and MD values in pieces 3-5 from 10 healthy controls in the pretest survey FA MD Right side Left side t-value p-value Right side Left side t-value p-value 3rd 0.57AÃ ± 0.04 0.56AÃ ± 0.06 0.297 0.774 1.57AÃ ± 0.14 1.60AÃ ± 0.19 -0.795 0.452 4th 0.67AÃ ± 0.05 0.67AÃ ± 0.05 -0.291 0.779 1.61AÃ ± 0.23 1.58AÃ ± 0.18 0.853 0.418 5th 0.67AÃ ± 0.05 0.68AÃ ± 0.05 -0.472 0.65 1.50AÃ ± 0.20 1.52AÃ ± 0.20 -0.628 0.548 FA and MD values showed no important differences between the right and the left ocular nervus in healthy controls Average Diffusivities ( MD ) are given in AÃ µm2/ms. Fractional anisotropy ( FA ) is without units. Table 8. Comparison of FA and MD values in pieces 3-5 from 10 healthy controls in the pretest survey Indexs Slice Statistic 3rd ( meanAÃ ±std ) 4th ( meanAÃ ±std ) 5th ( meanAÃ ±std ) F-value p-value FA 0.56AÃ ± 0.04 0.67AÃ ± 0.05 0.68AÃ ± 0.05 17.54 lt ; 0.001 MD 1.58AÃ ± 0.15 1.60AÃ ± 0.21 1.51AÃ ± 0.21 0.500 0.613 Randomized discrepancy block-analysis indicated important differences in FA but non in MD among 3rd-5th pieces. In add-on, after multiple comparings by the least important difference ( LSD ) trial, we found the FA values in the 4th and 5th pieces were higher than in the 3rd piece ( F = 17.54, P lt ; 0.001 ; P lt ; 0.000 ( 3rd vs. 4th ) , p lt ; 0.000 ( 3rd vs. 5th ) ) , but did non differ statistically from each other ( p = 0.757 ( 4th vs. 5th ) ) . Average Diffusivities ( MD ) are given in AÃ µm2/ms. Fractional anisotropy ( FA ) is without units. Naismith et Al. [ 20 ] discovered the FA and IÃ »aS? to be the first parametric quantities to alter in the acute IDON. IÃ »a was decreased to a singular extent in the acute IDON and this step was found to correlate with the ocular result. In our survey, we found significantly increased average IÃ »aS? and decreased FA in 33 instances with acute IDON during first episode and recurrent instances when compared to controls, and besides detected a lessening in the IÃ »a of patients with a first episode in the acute phase by utilizing mated t trial ( t =2.10, P = 0.046 ) although that difference did non make statistical significance ( z = 3.414, P = 0.065 ) after GEE theoretical account analysis was performed. Since the pathological alterations in recurrent instances are more complex than in instances with first clip manifestation, and since the sample size of recurrent instances was little ( n=6 ) , we will merely discourse the first episode subgroup as we assume that this theoretical account likely reflects the pathological alterations in acute period more closely. In instances with white affair hurt merely affecting medulla devolution, we hypothesize that IÃ »aS? is likely to increase, reflecting the increased freedom of H2O molecules to undergo Brownian Motion perpendicular to the axons due to the loss of myelin unity. The consequences of our survey confirm consistent pathological alterations and back up our premise. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis ( EAE ) is a widely used carnal theoretical account, which can imitate many characteristics of human MS. ON is one of the phenotypes in EAE mice. The IÃ »a and IÃ »aS? appear to be both sensitive and specific for axonal hurt and demyelination, severally in Xu et Al. survey [ 14 ] . Wu et Al. [ 41 ] studied an EAE murine theoretical account in the ague phase utilizing in vivo diffusion-weighted imagination with diffusion sensitising gradients parallel and perpendicular to the axonal piece of lands. They detected that progressive acute axonal harm resulted in a 23 % lessening in IÃ »a at 20 yearss after immunisation. Using a mated t-test, we found that IÃ »a lessenings in patients with first episode in the ague IDON, a determination we ascribe to axonal hurt happening during the acute phase. However, this decision needs to be reconfirmed by more research. Trip et Al. and Kolbe et Al. [ 12, 17 ] found increased MD and reduced FA-values in patients with one-sided IDON who had suffered from ocular symptoms for a lower limit of at least one twelvemonth. The writers considered these alterations to be chiefly caused by axonal loss, with demyelination and gliosis playing a partial function. In our survey, 18 instances with IDON in the subacute phase, both of first manifestations and recurrent instances, showed significantly decreased FA and increased IÃ »aS? , IÃ »a and MD when compared to controls, back uping the findings of the aforesaid writers. The DT-MRI fibre paths and cleavage of ocular radiation from the sidelong geniculate karyon to the ocular cerebral mantle have already been studied by Yamamoto et Al. and Berman et Al. [ 42-43 ] . Bajraszewski et Al. [ 44 ] found significantly increased MD and reduced FA besides in the ocular radiation in patients with ocular neuritis ( symptom onset 4.0 AÃ ± 0.4 old ages ) compared to controls and suggested the alterations to be caused by anterograde effects of the nervus harm. Our survey found no important alterations in diffusion parametric quantities in patients with ON continuance under one twelvemonth, but a significantly decreased FA and higher IÃ »aS? if the disease continuance exceeded that period of clip. This difference indicates more serious wasting of the ocular radiation after the return of symptoms. The most likely pathogenesis of unnatural diffusion in ocular radiation would look to be secondary lesions induced by axonal devolution after ON. We besides observed an increased MD value in ocular radiation in chronic ON patients compared with control topics. However, the alteration was non important ( t = 2.14, P = 0.065 ) , perchance because of the little figure of patients. These findings support our hypothesis that unnatural diffusion in ocular radiation is an of import feature of ON. Further research is still needed to further beef up the function of DT-MRI measurings in ON rating and degree appraisal. Decisions In the current survey, we applied DT-MRI methodological analysis to look into alterations in ocular nervus and radiation. Our consequences in footings of diffusion parametric quantity alterations both during ague and remitting ON support and widen antecedently reported findings. Additionally, we found significantly decreased FA and increased IÃ »aS? in the ocular radiation of chronic ON patients. We were able to observe dynamic alterations in the diffusion parametric quantities during the development of chronic ON, perchance bespeaking ongoing medulla harm. Based on our fresh findings we suggest directional diffusivity to possess great possible as a specific biomarker and rating step for myelin hurt. Future probes are needed to find whether these indices have practical parts to the diagnosing and forecast for patients with ON. Recognitions This work was supported by grants from NSFC ( 20670530, 60875079 ) , the 863 undertaking ( 2007AA01Z327 ) and Beijing Nova Plan ( 2007A094 ) . We would wish to thank Prof. Chunshui Yu and Dr. Wen Qin for proficient aid geting MR images, Dr. Wei Shi, MD Nora Hailla, and Dr. Siegfried Wurster for valuable expertness and counsel to this research, Prof. Xiaojun Zhang for patient enlisting and all our topics kindly holding to take portion in this survey. How to cite Optic Radiation In Optic Neuritis Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Poppers 3-World ontology consists of that of the spatio-temporal world of objects (say, W1), that of minds, intentionality and mental states (W2), and that of unembodied or embodied entities on which W2 has acted (W3). On the other hand, Moutons model consists of three worlds, sequentially that of the real-world (let us say, Wm1), the world of science (Wm2), and the world of meta-science (Wm3).The authors is interpreted as the process existing in the worlds of abstraction / conceptualisation (D1), the representational stage (D2) and finally the constructed stage (D3).The subject is viewed through the lens of Karl Poppers theory of 3 worlds, as well as its interpretation by Mouton , which talks about the role of each of the phenomena in the real world, i.e., abstract thoughts in a persons head, representations such as sketches or drawings to the final constructions at manufacturing or at site. We will write a custom essay sample on Poppers 3-World or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The designer is usually most involved in the representational phase, where the thoughts and ideas are converted into the representational form of drawings or visualisation models using todays computational technology.A different classificatory system of design is explored here which takes its inspiration from some of the systems described in ontological research. Popper  described a three worlds theory, where he described as the world as divided intoIt is extended by the work of Mouton , also using similar terminology, but clarifying the purpose of each world into more distinct entities.Popper  defines the world as made up of three worlds (W1, W2, W3), which are defined as the . This he states is separate from the world of monists, who believe that the world is made up of only physical entities, or of dualists who believe that the world is composed entirely of physical entities and .. In contrast his 3- Worlds theory is made up of existing entities (W1), the products of thought (W2), and .. the result of interplay of thought and physical entities (W3). Popper suffices it to think that this pretty much defines all that can be thought of in the world. Poppers definition, however, is often unclear and confusing, in distinguishing between the products of .. and of thought (W3).Mouton  extends on Poppers 3-worlds definition to distinguish them into the three worlds of (Wm1), (Wm2), and (Wm3). Moutons world seems much clearer and one can distinguish the worlds of existent objects (Wm1), scientific thoughts (Wm2) and metascience (Wm3)
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Biography of Edmonia Lewis, American Sculptor Edmonia Lewis (c. July 4, 1844Ã¢â¬âSeptember 17, 1907) was an American sculptor of African-American and Native American heritage. Her work, which features themes of freedom and abolition, became popular after the Civil War and earned her numerous accolades. Lewis depicted African, African-American, and Native American people in her work, and she is particularly recognized for her naturalism within the neoclassical genre. Fast Facts: Edmonia Lewis Known For: Lewis was a sculptor who used neoclassical elements to depict African-American and Native American people.Born:Ã July 4 or July 14, in either 1843 or 1845, possibly in upstate New YorkDied: September 17, 1907 in London, EnglandOccupation: Artist (sculptor)Education: Oberlin CollegeNotable Works:Ã Forever FreeÃ (1867),Ã HagarÃ in the WildernessÃ (1868),Ã The Old Arrow Maker and His DaughterÃ (1872), The Death ofÃ CleopatraÃ (1875)Notable Quote: I was practically driven to Rome in order to obtain the opportunities for art culture, and to find a social atmosphere where I was not constantly reminded of my color. The land of liberty had not room for a colored sculptor. Early Life Edmonia Lewis was one of two children born to a mother of Native American and African-American heritage.Ã Her father, an African Haitian, was a gentlemens servant. Her birthdate and birthplace (possibly New York or Ohio) are in doubt. Lewis may have been born on July 14 or July 4, in either 1843 or 1845. She herself claimed her birthplace was upstate New York.Ã Lewis spent her early childhood with her mothers people, the Mississauga band of Ojibway (Chippewa Indians). She was known as Wildfire, and her brother was called Sunrise. After they were orphaned when Lewis was about 10 years old, two aunts took them in. They lived near Niagara Falls in northern New York. Education Sunrise, with wealth from the California Gold Rush and from working as a barber in Montana, financed his sisters education that included prep school and Oberlin College. She studied art at Oberlin beginning in 1859. Oberlin was one of very few schools at the time to admit either women or people of color. Lewiss time there, though, was not without its difficulties. In 1862, two white girls at Oberlin accused her of attempting to poison them. Lewis was acquitted of the charges but was subjected to verbal attacks and a beating by anti-abolitionist vigilantes. Even though Lewis was not convicted in the incident, Oberlins administration refused to allow her to enroll the next year to complete her graduation requirements. Early Success in New York After leaving Oberlin, Lewis went to Boston andÃ New York to study with sculptor Edward Brackett, who was introduced to her by abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. Soon, abolitionists began to publicize her work.Ã Lewiss first bust was of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, a white Bostonian who led black troops in the Civil War. She sold copies of the bust, and with the proceeds she was eventually able to move to Rome, Italy. Move to Marble and Neoclassical Style In Rome, Lewis joined a large artistic community that included other women sculptors such as Harriet Hosmer, Anne Whitney, and Emma Stebbins. She began to work in marble and adopted the neoclassical style, which included elements of ancient Greek and Roman art. Concerned with racist assumptions that she wasnt really responsible for her work, Lewis worked alone and was not part of the community that drew buyers to Rome. Among her patrons in America was abolitionist and feminist Lydia Maria Child. Lewis converted to Roman Catholicism during her time in Italy. Lewis told a friend that she lived within the city of Rome to support her art: There is nothing so beautiful as the free forest. To catch a fish when you are hungry, cut the boughs of a tree, make a fire to roast it, and eat it in the open air, is the greatest of all luxuries. I would not stay a week pent up in cities, if it were not for my passion for art. Edmonia Lewis most famous sculpture: The Death of Cleopatra (1876). Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain Famous Sculptures Lewis had some success, especially among American tourists, for her depictions of African, African-American, and Native American people. Egyptian themes were, at the time, considered representations of Black Africa. Her work has been criticized for the Caucasian look of many of her female figures, though their costuming is considered more ethnically accurate. Among her best-known sculptures are Forever Free (1867), a sculpture commemorating the ratification of the 13th Amendment and which depicts a black man and woman celebrating the Emancipation Proclamation; Hagar in the Wildnerness, a sculpture of the Egyptian handmaiden of Sarah and Abraham, mother of Ishmael; The Old Arrow-Maker and His Daughter, a scene of Native Americans; and The Death of Cleopatra, a depiction of the Egyptian queen. Lewis created the The Death of Cleopatra for the 1876 Philadelphia Centenniel, and it was also displayed at the 1878 Chicago Exposition. The sculpture was lost for a century. It turned out to have been displayed on the grave of a race track owners favorite horse, Cleopatra, while the track was transformed first into a golf course and then a munitions plant. With another building project, the statue was moved and then rediscovered, and in 1987 it was restored. It is now part of the collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Death Lewis disappeared from public view in the late 1880s. Her last known sculpture was completed in 1883, and Frederick Douglass met with her in Rome in 1887. A Catholic magazine reported on her in 1909 and there was a report of her in Rome in 1911. For a long time, no definitive death date was known for Edmonia Lewis. In 2011, cultural historian Marilyn Richardson uncovered evidence from British records that she was living in the Hammersmith area of London and died in the Hammersmith Borough Infirmary on September 17, 1907, despite those reports of her in 1909 and 1911. Legacy Though she received some attention in her lifetime, Lewis and her innovations were not widely recognized until after her death. Her work has been featured in several posthumous exhibitions; some of her most famous pieces now reside in the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Cleveland Museum of Art. Sources Atkins, Jeannine.Ã Stone Mirrors: The Sculpture and Silence of Edmonia Lewis.Ã Simon Schuster, 2017.Buick, Kirsten.Ã Child of the Fire: Mary Edmonia Lewis and the Problem of Art HistoryÃ¢â¬â¢s Black and Indian Subject.Ã Duke University Press, 2009.Henderson, Albert.Ã The Indomitable Spirit of Edmonia Lewis: A Narrative Biography.Ã Esquiline Hill Press, 2013.
Monday, March 2, 2020
An Overview of Chinas One-Child Policy Chinas one-child policy was established by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979 to restrict communist Chinas population growth and limited couples to having only one child. Although designated a temporary measure, it remained in effect for more than 35 years. Fines, pressures to abort a pregnancy, and even forced sterilization of women accompanied second or subsequent pregnancies. The policy was not an all-encompassing rule because it was restricted to ethnic Han Chinese living in urban areas. Citizens living in rural areas and minorities living in China were not subject to the law.Ã Unintended Effects of the One-Child Law There have long been reportsÃ that officials have forced women pregnant without permission to have abortions and have levied steep fines on families violating the law. In 2007 in the southwestern Guangxi Autonomous Region of China,Ã riots broke out as a result, and some people may have been killed, including population control officials. The Chinese have long had a preference for male heirs, so the one-childÃ ruleÃ caused many problems for female infants:Ã abortion, out-of-country adoption, neglect, abandonment, and even infanticide were known to occur to females. Statistically, such Draconian family planning has resulted in the disparate (estimated) ratio of 115 males for every 100 females among babies born.Ã Normally, 105 males are naturally born for every 100 females. ThisÃ skewed ratio in China creates the problem of a generation of young men not having enough women to marry and have their own families, which has been speculated may cause future unrest in the country. These forever bachelors will not have a family to care for them in their old age either, which could put a strain on future government social services. The one-child rule has been estimated to have reduced population growth in the country of nearly 1.4 billion (estimated, 2017) by as muchÃ as 300 millionÃ people over its first 20 years. Whether the male-to-female ratio eases with the discontinuation of the one-child policy will come clear overÃ time. Chinese Now Allowed to Have Two Children Though the one-child policy may have had the goal of preventing the countrys population of spiraling out of control, after several decades, there were concerns over its cumulative demographic effect, namely the country havingÃ a shrinking labor pool and smaller young population to take care of the number of elderly people in ensuing decades. So in 2013, the country eased the policy to allow some families to have two children. In late 2015, Chinese officials announced the scrapping the policy altogether, allowing all couples to have two children.Ã Future of Chinas Population ChinasÃ total fertility rateÃ (the number of births perÃ woman) is 1.6,Ã higher than slowly declining Germany at 1.45 but lower than the U.S. at 1.87 (2.1 births per woman is the replacement level of fertility, representing a stable population, exclusive of migration). The effect of the two-child rule hasnt made the population decline stabilize completely, but the law is young yet.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
The WTO has been hijacked by rich country interests, thereby worsening the conditions of the poor in less prosperous countries - Essay Example Taking the case of Zimbabwe as case in point, one can see how the WTO seeks to exploit this resource rich area of the globe for its mineral wealth while at the same time rejecting the market value of finished goods or food that Zimbabwe is capable of producing (Baumberg & Anderson, 2008). As such, the relationship is only a one way relationship in which Zimbabwe, and many nations like it, are forced to sell their products at lower prices to the richer members of the WTO. Further, even the goods that might exist to be traded on the global market are disproportionately priced and locked out of key global markets as a result of the actions that entities such as the WTO engage. Yes, it must not be the understanding of the reader that such a situation of raw material extraction and price setting is somehow unique with regards to sub-Saharan Africa. Instead, the unfortunate fact of the matter is that developed nations around the globe utilize price setting and currency wars, as well as pro duct dumping, to ensure that this particular approach to global supremacy and economic power are maintained at a systemic level. Further, taking the example of Burma, a nation that has only recently stepped out of military dictatorship, it can be understood that the WTO also seeks to take advantage of this nation; not only with respect to its surplus of cheap labor but with regards to its agricultural exports. As a direct result of the combined benefit of preferential trade, WTO member nations, specifically the wealthy ones, are able to pay their own farmers a subsidy in order that they might be able to compete with the low cost exports of nations such as Burma. In such a manner, entities such as the WTO are able to exploit poorer/less developed nations by forcing them to sell the products that are desired at a given price as well as ensuring that they are not able to gorow their own domestic economy by subsidizing any industry or agricultural sector that runs the risk of being over taken by the cheap exports that such a nation might provide to the market (Williams, 2001). One need look no further than the way in which heavy levels of subsidies exist throughout Western Europe and the United States in order to understand the way in which offenses maneuvers are continually engaged to ensure that the third world is unable to compete with the first. As such, the take away understanding that can be provided from this brief analysis is the fact that the WTO is ultimately like any other organization is made up of a large number of stakeholders (Antell & Coleman, 2011). Rather than determining that the WTO is brought to human ethics and should be dissolved immediately and forth with, the more reasonable and rational understanding that should be engaged is the fact that a disproportionate level of power and determinacy is given to those nations that hold the wealth throughout the global system; enabling them to take advantage of the poorer nations and set prices rather than engaging in a level of true economic freedom and cooperation. Ironically, this level of freedom and economic cooperation is the cornerstone upon which the WTO was originally founded. However, as can be seen from the preceding